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Vocabulary

Raise x Rise

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Both raise and rise refer to something going up, but there is a difference:

Raise

Raise needs a direct object – if you raise something you move it up. It has both literal and non-literal meanings and it is a regular verb, so it’s past and past participle forms are raised.  

  • raise my eyebrows when I’m surprised.
  • The government plan to raise taxes.
  • He raised his voice at me in anger, but I forgave him.

Rise

Rise does not take a direct object – things rise or go up by themselves. Rise is an irregular verb so the past form is rose and the past participle is risen.  

  • The sun rises at 6a.m.
  • The water level rises twice a day because of the tide.
  • The bird rose into the air and flew away.

Abbreviations

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GONNA

 

going to

 

 

I’m gonna miss you.

 

 

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GOTTA

 

have got to

 

 

gotta feeling.

 

 

DUNNO

 

don’t know

 

 

I dunno where she is.

 

 

OUTTA

 

out of

 

 

I’m outta here.

 

 

WANNA

 

want to

 

 

I wanna go out.

 

 

KINDA

 

kind of

 

 

He’s kinda cute.

 

 

GIMME

 

give me

 

 

Gimme some water.

 

 

WATHCA

 

what are you

 

 

Whatcha doing?

When do we use because, as, since and for?

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because

 

 

The reason is very important in the sentence.

 

 

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The students could go home earlier because the teacher was ill.

Because the teacher was ill, the students could go home earlier.

 

as

 

 

The reason is already known.

 

 

As we read, we learn.

 

 

since

 

 

The reason is already known. (more formal than as)

 

 

Since we were in the computer lab, our English has improved.

 

for

 

 

The reason is given at the end of the sentence. The clause with for cannot be used in inital position.

 

 

We went to a small restaurant – for we were hungry.